REVIEW NCLEX NCLEX NOTES AND REVIEW

Question Answer
Hemorriaghic Shock shock associated with the sudden and rapid loss of significant amounts of blood
Addison's Disease Characterized by fatigue, hypotension, loss of appetite and weight, nausea or vomiting, and increased hyperpigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes. It results from partial or complete loss of glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, and androgenic functio
Addisonian Crises An emergency situation occurring with adrenal hypofunction and exposure to trauma, surgery, or other severe physiologic stress that exhausts the body's stores of glucocorticoids.
Adregernic sympathomimetic, a drug that stimulates alpha or beta receptors (thus mimicking the effects of epinephrine or norepinephrine) or acts primarily on receptors in the sympathetic nervous system that are stimulated by dopamine.
Advance Directive Documented written or verbal instructions by the client about his wishes for life-sustaining medical care in the event he becomes incapacitated
Akinesia . Loss of the ability to move voluntarily. 2. The rest period after systole in the normal heart rhythm. 3. In psychiatry: a neurotic condition characterized by symptoms of paralysis.
Ablyopia Decreased visual acuity in one eye in the absence of detectable structural or pathologic changes.
Amniotomy Artificial rupture of the membranes.
Anastomosis the surgical union of two hollow organs, e.g. blood vessels or parts of the intestine, to ensure continuity of the passageway. Types of anastomoses are end-to-end and side-to-side.
Anticholinergic Of or relating to blockade of the impulses of parasympathetic or other cholinergic nerve fibers. 2. Any agent with anticholinergic properties.
Antisocial disorder A disorder that manifests after age 15 as a pervasive disregard for and violation of the rights of others.
aortic stenosis An abnormal narrowing of the orifice of the aortic valve, which prevents normal flow of blood from the left ventricle into the aorta. The constriction may result from a congenital malformation or pathologic fusion of the valve cusps.
Aortic stenosis Can cause decreased cardiac output and pulmonary vascular congestion
Apraxia Complete or partial inability to perform purposeful movements in the absence of sensory or motor impairment.
Asepsis The absence of living, disease-producing organisms
Medical Asepsis refers to the removal or destruction of disease organisms or infected material
Surgical Asepsis refers to protection against infection before, during, or after surgery by means of sterile technique.
Asthma recurrent attacks of paroxysmal dyspnea, bronchospasm, wheezing on expiration, and coughing. Conditions that may trigger an asthma attack include inhalation of allergens or pollutants, vigorous exercise, emotional stress, and infection
Ataxia Lack of coordination
auscultatory gap Absence of Korotkoff sounds between phases I (onset of faint, clear tapping sound that gradually intensifies) and II (onset of swishing-like sound) while obtaining a blood pressure reading.
autonomic dysreflexia Reaction that may occur in clients with spinal cord injury above T6. This life-threatening reaction may occur even from seemingly minor stimuli, such as lying on a wrinkled sheet or having a full bladder
Dysreflexia Dysreflexia results in profuse diaphoresis, pounding headache, blurred vision, and dramatically elevated blood pressure.
Braxton Hicks Light, painless, irregular uterine tightening during pregnancy, arising during the first trimester and increasing in frequency, duration, and intensity by the third trimester. Also called false labor. Strong may be mistaken for true labor.
Bronchiolitis A lung inflammation that usually begins in the terminal bronchioles, occurring mainly in infants and debilitated persons. Also called bronchopneumonia.
Brudzinski's sign Flexion of the hips and knees in response to passive flexion of the neck; signals meningeal irritation.
Bruit An abnormal vascular "swishing" sound heard on auscultation as a result of turbulent blood flow through dilated, irregular, torturous, or stenotic vessels.
cardiac catheterization A diagnostic procedure in which a cardiac catheter is inserted into a large vein (usually of an arm or leg) and then threaded through the vein to the client's heart.
Cardiac output The volume of blood ejected by the heart per minute (normally ranging from 4 to 8 L). Cardiac output equals the stroke volume (the difference between end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume) multiplied by the heart rate. CO + HR = SV
cardiogenic shock a condition of low cardiac output that results from heart pump failure, such as in acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, or severe cardiomyopathy.
cardiomyopathy Primary noninflammatory disease of the myocardium.

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Primary disease of the cardiac muscle characterized by disproportionate, asymmetrical thickening of the interventricular septum, particularly in the anterior-superior region. Also called idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis.
catatonic A stuporous or unresponsive state commonly characterized by an inability to move or talk.
catecholamine Any of a group of compounds having a sympathomimetic . Some catecholamines are produced by the body and function as key neurologic chemicals. Others are synthesized as drugs for use in the treatment of such disorders as asthma, shock, and heart failure.
Celiac Disease A chronic disease in which an individual can't tolerate foods containing gluten or wheat protein. Signs and symptoms include abdominal distention, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle wasting, and extreme lethargy.

Cellulitis An infection of deep subcutaneous tissue and sometimes muscle that may be associated with infection of an operative or traumatic wound. Characterized by local heat, pain, redness, and swelling.

A saclike dilation of the wall of a cerebral artery, typically resulting from weakness of the wall. A cerebral, or berry, aneurysm usually occurs in the circle of Willis and is prone to rupture. Cerebral Aneurysm
Cerebral Palsy A permanent disorder of motor function resulting from nonprogressive brain damage or a brain lesion. Usually appears before age 3.
Chelation Therapy Administration of agents that bind to metals; administered to aid in the removal of excess metals, such as lead or iron in the body.
Chemotherapy Treatment of a disease using chemicals that exert a toxic effect on the pathogen or abnormal cell growth.

CPT (Chest Physiotherapy) An array of physical techniques, including postural drainage, chest percussion and vibration, and coughing and deep-breathing maneuvers. Used to loosen and help eliminate lung secretions, reexpand lung tissue, and promote optimal use of respiratory muscle
cholelithiasis The presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder.
Chronic Bronchitis A persistent respiratory disease marked by increased production of mucus by the glands of the trachea and bronchi. This common disease is characterized by a cough (with expectoration) at least 3 months of the year for more than 2 consecutive years.
Chvostek's sign A spasm of the facial muscles elicited by light taps on the facial nerve. This spasm signals tetany and is seen in clients with hypocalcemia.
clinical depression Syndrome characterized by persistent sadness and dysphoria accompanied by disturbances in sleep and appetite, lethargy, and an inability to experience pleasure.
compartment syndrome A neurovascular complication commonly associated with fractures of the limb; constricting or occlusive dressings, sutures, or casts; poor positioning; and any injury causing ischemia, swelling, or bleeding into the tissues that ultimately can lead to perm
compartment syndrome It's characterized by increasing limb pain unrelieved by analgesics, pallid or dusky skin color changes, absent pulse or edema distal to the injury site, decreased active and passive muscle movement distal to the injury site, pain with passive muscle stre
Improper formation and function of the hip socket, commonly involving subluxation (where the femoral head is high in the acetabulum) or dislocation (where the femoral head is above the acetabulum). congenital hip dislocation
conversion disorder A disorder in which the client attempts to resolve a psychological conflict through the loss of a specific physical function — for example, by paralysis, blindness, or inability to swallow
Corrigan's pulse Short, forceful, bounding pulse typically associated with aortic insufficiency
couvade The experience of physical symptoms associated with pregnancy, such as nausea, vomiting, and backache, by the husband of a pregnant woman; the response often results from stress, anxiety, and empathy for the pregnant woman
Crackles Short, explosive or popping sounds usually heard during inspiration. They may be coarse (loud and low in pitch) or fine (less intense and high in pitch) and resemble the sounds heard when rolling hair between the fingers near the ear.
Crohn's disease A chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown cause, involves the terminal ileum, with scarring and thickening of the bowel wall. S/S: diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, nausea, fever, chills, anorexia, and weight loss.
Croup An acute viral infection of the respiratory tract that causes acute upper airway obstruction. Characterized by stridor, a barking cough, and hoarseness, it primarily affects infants and young children ages 3 months to 3 years and follows an upper respirat
Cushing Syndrome Excessive production of adrenocortical hormones or by prolonged high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. It's characterized by such signs and symptoms as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dusky complexion with purple striae, muscle wasting, weakness, and sudden d
cystic fibrosis An inherited disorder of the exocrine glands that affects multiple organ systems, causing such conditions as chronic pulmonary disease, pancreatic deficiency, sweat gland dysfunction, malabsorption, and liver obstruction.

deceleration Reduction in speed or velocity.
deep vein thrombosis A condition involving the development of a blood clot in the deep veins of the pelvis, groin, or legs that disrupts venous blood flow and leads to swelling and edema.
dehiscence The partial or complete separation of a wound's edges.

dehydrated Having insufficient water in the body or tissues.
delusions False ideas or beliefs accepted as real by the client.
delusions of grandeur Distorted or false idea or belief that one has exceptional powers, wealth, skill, influence, or destiny.
Denver Developmental Screening Test An assessment tool used to evaluate the development of a child in four categories: personal social, fine motor-adaptive, language, and gross motor skills.
dependent personality disorder A disorder that begins in early adulthood and is characterized by an excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fear of separation.
Diabetes Insipidus A metabolic disorder marked by extreme polyuria and polydipsia and resulting from deficient secretion or production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or inability of the renal tubules to respond to ADH.
diabetes mellitus A chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by hyperglycemia and glycosuria resulting from inadequate production or utilization of insulin.
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) Excessive clot formation caused by overstimulation of the body's clotting and anticlotting processes in response to disease or injury. Such overstimulation is followed by a deficiency in clotting factors with hypocoagulability and hemorrhaging
diuretic diuretic
1. Tending to increase the formation and excretion of urine. 2. An agent that promotes the formation and excretion of urine.
diverticulities Inflammation of one or more diverticula, or saclike herniations, in the muscular layer of the colon.
diverticulosis The presence of saclike herniations through the muscular layer of the colon without accompanying inflammation. Most clients with this condition have few signs or symptoms except for occasional rectal bleeding.
drip factor An indication of the number of drops needed to obtain one milliliter of solution delivered by a manufacturer's I.V. tubing based on the drop size.
dumping syndrome A condition of nausea, weakness, profuse sweating, and dizziness occurring in clients who have had a subtotal gastrectomy. Signs and symptoms arise soon after eating when the contents of the stomach empty too rapidly into the duodenum. Also called postgas
dumping syndrome Eating small, frequent, high-protein, high-calorie meals may help prevent discomfort and ensure adequate nutrition.
dysphagia Difficulty swallowing resulting from obstructive disorders, such as an esophageal tumor or lower esophageal ring, interfere with the ability to swallow solids; motor disturbances
achalasia impair swallowing of solids and liquids.
dystonic reaction

Severe tonic contractions of the muscles in the neck, mouth, and tongue; dystonic reaction is a common adverse reaction to antipsychotic drugs.
dysuria Painful or difficult urination, which is usually caused by a bacterial infection or an obstruction in the urinary tract.
Parrotlike and inappropriate repetition of another's words. echolalia
ectopic pregnancy Implantation of the fertilized ovum outside the uterine cavity. Types of ectopic pregnancy are abdominal pregnancy, interstitial pregnancy, and tubal pregnancy.
effacement Shortening of the vaginal portion of the cervix and thinning of its walls during labor due to stretching and dilation caused by the fetus. Full effacement obliterates the constrictive neck of the uterus. The extent of effacement is expressed as a percenta
elbow restraints Type of restrictive device attached to the client's body at the elbow to restrict movement or access to another body part; may be applied after cleft palate repair to reduce the risk of injury to the suture line.

electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) The induction of a brief seizure and loss of consciousness by applying a low-voltage alternating current to the brain through scalp electrodes.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) ECT is used in the treatment of affective disorders (primarily acute depression), especially in clients resistant to psychoactive drugs. On awakening, the client has no memory of the shock.
electromyography Diagnostic test that records the electrical activity of skeletal muscle groups at rest and during voluntary contraction.
electromyography It involves percutaneous insertion of a needle electrode into a muscle with measurement of the muscle's electrical discharge through an oscilloscope
endocarditis germs enter your bloodstream, travel to your heart, and lodge on abnormal heart valves or damaged heart tissue.
endotracheal intubation Passage of a wide-bore tube through the mouth or nose into the trachea. It may be used to maintain a patent airway, administer anesthesia, aspirate secretions, prevent aspiration of foreign material of an unconscious or paralyzed person
Parkinson's s a degenerative brain disease that strikes when brain cells don't make enough of the chemical dopamine. That leads to symptoms including tremors, rigidity and slowness of movement.
Enteral Referring to administration by mouth, rectum, or directly into the intestinal system.
enteral feedings Delivery of nutrients directly into the GI tract
enteric precautions A category-specific type of infection precautions Established by the CDC involving infections transmitted by intestinal secretions. These have since been replaced with standard precautions and transmission-based precautions
enuresis Involuntary passage or release of urine after the age when bladder control would have been normally achieved.
fifth disease A contagious, relatively benign disease caused by the Parvovirus B19; most commonly occurs in children ages 2 to 12 and is characterized by a red rash on the cheeks. Also called erythema infectiosum
febrile seizure A tonic-clonic seizure of relatively short duration (usually less than 1 minute) occurring with an acute illness and fever.
failure to thrive Condition in which an infant's height and weight fall below the third percentile on a standard growth chart; also called reactive attachment disorder.
extravasation Escape, usually of blood, lymph, or I.V. solution, from a vessel into surrounding tissues.
extrapyramidal Describing the tissues and structures of the brain located outside the pyramidal tract and not running through the medullary pyramid — excluding the motor neurons, motor cortex, and corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
full-term Pregnancy that has continued for a period of 38 to 42 weeks.
gastroenteritis Inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines that accompanies numerous GI disorders; characterized by anorexia, weakness, abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea.
gestational trophoblastic disease Failure of an embryo to develop beyond a primitive state due to proliferation and degeneration of the trophoblastic villi becoming filled with fluid and appearing as grape-sized vesicles Also called a hydatidiform mole, molar pregnancy. Tumor
glaucoma A group of eye diseases characterized by abnormally elevated pressure within the eye due to obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor.
glomerular filtration rate Rate at which the glomeruli in the kidneys filter blood (normally, 125 ml/minute).
Graham Steell's murmur A pulmonary insufficiency murmur resulting from pulmonary hypertension; usually loud with a blowing quality and variable in duration, it's heard best along the left sternal border over the third and fourth intercostal spaces.
Graves' disease A disorder of the thyroid gland characterized by pronounced thyrotoxicosis usually associated with an enlarged thyroid gland, exophthalmos, or pretibial myxedema.
gynecomastia Enlargement and development of the mammary glands in men, usually temporary and benign.
health care power of attorney A legal document in which an individual designates another person, called an "attorney-in-fact," to act on the individual's behalf if the principal person becomes disabled or incapacitated.
Hemarthrosis Bleeding into a joint cavity.
hemolytic reaction Type of blood transfusion reaction occurring when the donor's blood is incompatible with the recipient's blood; the most serious type of transfusion reaction.
hemophilia A bleeding disorder characterized by a failure of the blood clotting mechanism. It's an inherited condition occurring almost exclusively in males.
hepatic encephalopathy A serious complication of liver failure affecting a client's neurologic status; believed to result from the accumulation of toxins, such as ammonia, in the blood.
hepatojugular reflux Distention of the neck veins when manual pressure is applied over the right upper quadrant of the abdomen; it suggests heart failure.
hiatal hernia Protrusion of part of the stomach through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm.
hopelessness State of severe despair associated with feelings of inadequacy and isolation, an inability to act on one's behalf, and a belief that the situation is highly unlikely to improve.
hydatidiform mole A usually benign neoplasm that occurs at the end of a degenerating pregnancy and arises from enlarged chorionic villi and the proliferation of trophoblastic tissue.
hydramnios Presence of an excess volume of amniotic fluid during pregnancy.
hydrotherapy Treatment involving the use of water, such as tub or shower baths and whirlpools.
hyperemesis gravidarum Severe and prolonged vomiting during pregnancy to such a degree that weight loss and an imbalance of fluids and electrolytes occur.
hyperphosphatemia Elevated serum level of phosphorus above 2.6 mEq/L or 4.5 mg/dl.
hypersomnolence Excessive sleepiness.
hypertonic 1. A solution that has greater osmotic pressure compared to another solution; a fluid in which cells shrink. 2. In reference to muscles or arteries, having a greater than normal degree of tension.
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Primary disease of the cardiac muscle characterized by disproportionate, asymmetrical thickening of the interventricular septum, particularly in the anterior-superior region. Also called idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis.

hypochondriasis Preoccupation with the fear that one has a serious illness despite medical reassurance to the contrary; fear interferes with psychosocial functioning.
hypospadias A congenital abnormality in males in which the urethral opening is on the underside, rather than at the tip, of the penis; in females, the defect is manifested by a urethral opening into the vagina.
hypotonic 1. A solution that has a decreased osmotic pressure compared to another solution; a fluid in which cells swell. 2. In reference to muscles or arteries, having a less than normal degree of tension.

hypoxia A decreased level of oxygen in inspired air.
iatrogenic Introduced inadvertently by a medical practitioner or resulting from a diagnostic procedure or treatment.
induration Area of hardened tissue.
intermittent claudication Pain that occurs with activity or exercise but that is relieved with rest. This pain results from the body's inability to supply arterial blood — blood rich in nutrients — to the tissues that experience an increase in demand during exercise or activity.
intertrigo Dermatitis that occurs at moist, warm sites where skin surfaces rub together, such as the armpits, the inner surfaces of the thighs, and between the buttocks; caused by an overgrowth of normal flora.
intra-aortic balloon pump A device consisting of a balloon attached to a catheter that is introduced into the descending thoracic aorta through the femoral artery
intracranial pressure Pressure exerted by the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood.
intradermal injection Injection of any substance into the skin between the dermis and epidermis. The technique is typically used to produce a local drug effect (such as in local anesthesia for procedures such as suturing wounds) or during allergy testing.
intraosseous infusion Administration of fluid, blood, or drugs into the bone marrow cavity of a long bone; typically used in children for emergency situations when I.V. access is difficult or unavailable.
intussusception Telescoping or invagination of a portion of the bowel into an adjacent portion; most commonly seen in infants.
iron deficiency anemia Anemia characterized by an insufficient amount of iron in the serum, decreased stores of iron in the bone marrow, and elevated serum iron-binding.
Kawasaki disease a febrile, multisystem disorder affecting the small to medium-size vessels, primarily of the lymph nodes, most commonly in children before puberty. Also called mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome.
Kegel exercises Exercises involving alternate contraction and relaxation performed to strengthen the perineal muscles.
Kernicterus is a rare neurological condition that occurs in some newborns with severe jaundice.
Kernig's sign symptom of meningitis; patient cannot extend the leg at the knee when the thigh is flexed because of stiffness in the hamstrings
Kussmaul's respirations Abnormally deep, gasping type of respirations resulting from air hunger; associated with severe diabetic acidosis and coma.
laminectomy Surgical removal of the bony arches of one or more vertebrae; performed to relieve spinal cord compression or to remove a displaced intervertebral disk.
lethargy A feeling or condition of sluggishness, apathy, or inactivity.
living will A witnessed document indicating a client's desire to be allowed to die a natural death rather than be kept alive by life-sustaining measures.
lochia alba A creamy white, brown, or colorless discharge consisting mainly of serum and white blood cells; typically stops flowing at about 6 weeks postpartum.
lochia rubra Present during the first 3 to 4 postpartum days; it's bloody and may contain mucus, tissue, debris, and small clots.
lochia serosa A pink or brownish discharge persisting for 5 to 7 days postpartum.
Logan bar Apparatus used to protect the surgical incision after cleft lip repair.
lumbar puncture Fluid withdrawal from the subarachnoid space of the lumbar region of the spinal canal, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae, for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Also called spinal tap.
lymphangiography A diagnostic radiographic evaluation of lymphatic system filling after injection of a contrast medium into a lymphatic vessel of each foot or hand.
lymphedema Edema of an arm or leg caused by the buildup of interstitial fluid as a result of lymphatic inflammation or obstruction or a lymph node disorder.
mastitis Inflammation of the mammary gland; usually caused by streptococcal or staphylococcal infection and infrequent breast-feeding
meconium A dark, greenish black material that occurs in the intestines of a fetus that forms the first stools of a neonate. The fluid is thick and sticky and is composed of intestinal gland secretions, some amniotic fluid, and intrauterine debris.
megaloblastic anemia A hematologic disorder that is characterized by the production and peripheral proliferation of megaloblasts.
Meniere's disease A labyrinthine dysfunction that produces severe vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, and tinnitus.
muscular dystrophy A group of degenerative genetic diseases characterized by weakness and the progressive atrophy of skeletal muscles with no evidence of nervous system involvement.
myalgia Diffuse muscle pain or tenderness associated with many infectious diseases.

myasthenia gravis An abnormal muscle weakness and fatigability, especially in the muscles of the face and throat, resulting from a defect in the conduction of nerve impulses at the myoneural junction.
mycoplasmal pneumonia A contagious respiratory disease caused by characterized by a sore throat, dry cough, fever, malaise, and myalgia.
myeloma Osteolytic neoplasm consisting of a protrusion of cells typical of the bone marrow.
myelomeningocele The protrusion of a hernial sac containing a portion of the spinal cord, its meninges, and cerebrospinal fluid through a congenital defect in the vertebral column.
myxedema A disorder that results from hypofunction of the thyroid. Signs and symptoms include enlarged tongue, slowed speech, moon face, drowsiness, cold intolerance, hair loss, and anemia
myxedema coma A rare, serious form of hypothyroidism that usually results from lack of treatment or mistreatment, severe stress (from infection, exposure to cold, or trauma), or the use of sedatives or anesthetics in a client being treated for hypothyroidism.
nebulizer A device that employs a baffle to produce a fine aerosol spray consisting of particles less than 30 micrometers in diameter.
nephrectomy The surgical removal of a kidney, usually done to remove a tumor, drain an abscess, or treat hydronephrosis.

nephrotic syndrome A clinical classification including all kidney diseases characterized by marked proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema.
nystagmus Involuntary, rapid movements of the eyeball that may be horizontal, rotatory, vertical, or mixed
A disorder characterized by obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors that represent recurring efforts to control overwhelming anxiety, guilt, or unacceptable impulses that persistently enter the consciousness. obsessive-compulsive disorder
oliguria A diminished flow of urine in relation to fluid intake; usually less than 400 ml in 24 hours. Also called hypouresis.
ophthalmia neonatorum eye infection occurring at birth or in the first month; most commonly caused by gonorrhea or chlamydia.
opioids opium-derived or synthetically produced drugs that alter pain perception, induce mental changes, promote deep sleep, depress respirations, constrict pupils, and decrease GI motility.
orthostatic hypotension Abnormally low blood pressure that occurs when a person stands up. Formerly called postural hypotension.
osteomalacia Delayed or poor mineralization of bone; the adult equivalent of rickets. This condition is associated with anorexia, fracture, pain, weakness, and weight loss.
osteomyelitis Inflammation of bone that results from a local or general infection of bone and bone marrow. The bacterial infection is caused by trauma or surgery, by direct extension from a nearby infection, or by introduction from the bloodstream.
otorrhea A discharge from the ear, which may be serous, sanguineous, or purulent if the external or middle ear is infected.
ototoxicity Harmful effect on the function of the eighth cranial nerve or hearing organs; most commonly associated with prescribed drugs.
Paget's disease A common bone disease that usually affects middle-age and elderly people. It's marked by inflammation of the bones, softening and thickening of the bones, excessive bone destruction, and unorganized bone repair; the result is bowing of the long bones.
palilalia Repetition of words or phrases with increasing rapidity.
paralytic ileus A decrease in or absence of bowel motility that may occur following abdominal surgery or may be caused by numerous other conditions, most commonly by peritonitis.
paresthesia Abnormal or heightened touch sensations, such as burning, numbness, prickling, and tingling, that commonly occur without external stimulus.
perceptions Awareness of objects and the ability to differentiate between them.
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) A technique to open stenosed atherosclerotic arteries. A balloon catheter is inserted through the skin and into the vessel to the site of narrowing; the balloon is inflated, thus flattening the plaque against the arterial walls.
pericarditis Inflammation of the pericardium; may be caused by trauma, neoplasm, infection, uremia, myocardial infarction, or collagen disease.
peritonitis An inflammation of the peritoneum; can be produced by bacteria or irritating substances introduced into the abdominal cavity by a penetrating wound or perforation of an organ.

pernicious anemia A megaloblastic anemia characterized by decreased gastric production of hydrochloric acid from the parietal cells of the stomach essential for vitamin B12 absorption; results in vitamin B12 deficiency.
phenylketonuria (PKU) a test done to check whether a newborn baby has the enzyme needed to use phenylalanine.
Phenylalanine is an amino acid that is needed for normal growth and development. If a baby's body does not have the enzyme that changes phenylalanine into another amino acid called tyrosine, the phenylalanine level builds up in the baby's blood and can cause brain dama
pheochromocytoma A chromaffin-cell tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes an excessive amount of the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, which results in severe hypertension, increased metabolism, and hyperglycemia.
phototherapy The treatment of disease by the use of light, especially ultraviolet light or other concentrated rays; used to treat acne, psoriasis, and hyperbilirubinemia.
placenta accreta Abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall.
Implantation of the placenta so that it adjoins or covers the internal os of the uterine cervix. The most common symptom is painless hemorrhage in the last trimester. placenta previa
pneumonia An acute infection of the lung parenchyma that commonly impairs gas exchange.
pneumothorax A collection of air in the pleural space; may result from an open chest wound that permits the entrance of air or from the rupture of a vesicle on the surface of the lung. Common types of pneumothorax are open, closed, and tension.
polydipsia Chronic, excessive thirst.
polymyositis The simultaneous inflammation of a number of voluntary muscles.
polyneuritis Degeneration of peripheral nerves primarily supplying the distal muscles of the extremities. It results in muscle weakness, with sensory loss and atrophy, and decreased or absent deep tendon reflexes.
polyphagia Voracious or excessive eating before becoming satiated.

postterm neonate A neonate born after the onset of the 43rd week of pregnancy.
preterm neonate A neonate born before the beginning of the 38th week of pregnancy.
Prinzmetal's angina A variant of angina pectoris, a form of unstable angina, in which the attacks occur during rest. Attacks are indicated by an ST-segment elevation on an electrocardiogram.
productive cough A mechanism by which the body clears the airway passages of secretions that normal mucociliary action doesn't remove; usually sudden, forceful, noisy expulsion of air from the lungs that contains sputum or blood (or both).

projection False attribution of one's unacceptable feelings, impulses, or thoughts onto another.
pseudoparkinsonism The development of a Parkinson-like disorder (neuromuscular disorder involving progressive muscle rigidity, akinesia, and involuntary tremors) due to psychotropic drug therapy
puerperal 1. Of or pertaining to the period from the end of childbirth until involution of the uterus is complete (usually 3 to 6 weeks). 2. Of or pertaining to a woman (puerpera) who has just given birth.
pulmonary edema An abnormal condition in which extravascular fluid is accumulated in lung tissues and alveoli.
pulse pressure
T
The numeric difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures, usually 30 to 40 mm Hg.
pyelonephritis nflammation of the kidney and its pelvis.
pyuria The presence of pus in the urine, commonly a sign of urinary tract infection.

quickening The first notable fetal movement in utero, usually occurring at 16 to 22 weeks' gestation.
radical mastectomy Surgical removal of an entire breast, pectoral muscles, axillary lymph nodes, and all fat, fascia, and adjacent tissues; usually used in the treatment of breast cancer.
reaction formation Substitution of behavior, thoughts, or feelings that are completely opposed to one's own unacceptable behavior, thoughts, or feelings.
reflection A technique in which the listener interprets the feelings of the client and repeats them back to the client; encourages the client to clarify his feelings.
repolarization Part of the cardiac conduction cycle in which the cell returns to its resting state, a more negatively charged state. Calcium ions move into the cell and potassium ions move out, followed by the extrusion of sodium and calcium ions from the cell and the r
respiratory acidosis Caused by reduced alveolar ventilation; is marked by increased partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, excess carbonic acid, and increased plasma hydrogen-ion concentration.
respiratory acidosis . Hypoventilation inhibits the excretion of carbon dioxide, which consequently produces excessive carbonic acid and thus lowers blood pH.
respiratory alkalosis Caused by both respiratory and nonrespiratory factors, this condition is marked by decreased partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, decreased hydrogen-ion concentration, and increased blood pH.
Reye's syndrome Acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of the internal organs following acute viral infections, such as influenza B, chickenpox, the enteroviruses, and the Epstein-Barr virus; has also been associated in children taking aspirin and salicylates.
Rh incompatibility In hematology: two blood groups that are antigenically different and, therefore, aren't compatible because one group lacks the Rh factor.
rheumatoid arthritis A chronic, systemic collagen disease marked by inflammation, stiffness, and pain in the joints and related structures that result in crippling deformities.`
Romberg's sign A swaying (or falling) when a person stands with feet together and eyes closed. It's an indication that the person has lost a sense of position. Also called rombergism.
rooting reflex A response in neonates to the cheek being touched or stroked. The neonate turns the head toward the stimulated side and begins to suck. The reflex usually disappears by 3 to 4 months of age.
Russell traction An orthopedic device that combines suspension and traction to align and immobilize the legs; used to treat diseases of the hip and knee and fractured femurs as well as hip and knee contractures.
schizophrenia A psychosis characterized by positive and negative symptoms. Negative symptoms include flat affect, alogia, and lack of self-initiating behavior. Positive symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech.
schizotypal personality disorder A disorder characterized by acute discomfort with and reduced capacity for close relationships and by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior, beginning in early adulthood.
scoliosis An appreciable lateral curvature of the spine resulting from numerous causes, including congenital malformations of the spine, muscle paralysis, poliomyelitis, sciatica, and unequal leg length.
sensorineural hearing loss Hearing loss caused by a defect or lesion of the inner ear or the acoustic nerve resulting in a distortion of sound that makes discrimination difficult.
sensory perceptions Awareness of one's surroundings through the use of vision, hearing, taste, touch, and smell.
shock An abnormal physiologic state characterized by reduced cardiac output, circulatory insufficiency, tachycardia, hypotension, restlessness, pallor, and diminished urinary output. Shock may be caused by a variety of conditions, including trauma, infection, h
sickle cell anemia A chronic and incurable hereditary disorder occurring in people homozygous for hemoglobin S (Hb S). The presence of Hb S results in distortion and fragility of erythrocytes.
sickle cell crisis Episode of widespread cellular sickling in which the client's red blood cells containing hemoglobin S are exposed to conditions in which oxygen supply to the cells is decreased.
sickle cell crisis Painful events (crises) in the hands or feet, abdomen, back, or chest and become anemic
simple fracture An uncomplicated, closed bone fracture in which the skin isn't broken.
spinal shock Loss of autonomic reflex, motor, and sensory activity below the level of a lesion. Signs of spinal shock include flaccid paralysis, loss of deep tendon and perianal reflexes, and loss of motor and sensory function.

status asthmaticus A severe and prolonged asthma attack in which bronchospasm fails to respond to oral medication, sometimes resulting in hypoxia, cyanosis, and unconsciousness.
stoma surgically created opening of an internal organ on the body surface, such as for a colostomy or tracheostomy. 3. A new opening surgically created between two structures, such as for a gastroenterostomy or pancreaticogastrostomy.
stomatitis An inflammation of the mouth that may result from bacterial, viral, or fungal infection; exposure to chemicals or drugs; vitamin deficiency; or a systemic inflammatory disease.
stridor A high-pitched respiratory sound, usually heard during inspiration, caused by an obstruction of the trachea or larynx.
stroke A condition of sudden onset in which a cerebral blood vessel is occluded by an embolus or cerebrovascular hemorrhage. The resulting ischemia of brain tissue that is normally perfused by the affected vessel may lead to permanent neurologic damage.
subdural hematoma A condition involving the collection of blood between the dura mater and the brain.
supratentorial Located above the tentorium of the brain.
suspension A liquid that contains solid particles that aren't dissolved; stirring or shaking the liquid maintains the dispersal.
sympathomimetics Group of drugs that mimic the effects of impulses conveyed by adrenergic postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system.
synergistic effect Administration of two drugs producing the same qualitative effect together to produce a greater response than either drug alone.

tachycardia A condition characterized by a regular but accelerated action of the heart, usually 100 to 150 beats per minute
tactile fremitus Vibration in the chest wall that can be felt when a hand is applied to the thorax while the patient is speaking. It's most commonly due to consolidation of a lung or a part of a lung but may also be caused by congestion, inflammation, or infection.
tardive dyskinesia A disorder associated with parkinsonism and extended use of the phenothiazine drugs used to treat this condition. Most commonly affecting elderly people, symptoms include repeated involuntary facial, limb, and trunk movements.
tension pneumothorax A condition in which air enters the pleural space through a tear in lung tissue but can't exit through the same vent, thereby trapping air in the pleural space with each inspiration and producing positive pleural pressure. This in turn causes the ipsilate
tenting An indication of decreased skin turgor, as exhibited by a fold of skin remaining or holding in the pinched position after being released.
teratogenic Causing harm to the developing fetus.
tetany Hyperexcitability of nerves and muscles as a result of a lessened concentration of extracellular ionized calcium; symptoms include seizures, muscle twitching and cramps, and sharp flexion of the wrist and ankle joints.
thrombocytopenia A reduction in the number of blood platelets; usually caused by destruction of erythroid tissue in bone marrow. The condition may be a result of neoplastic disease or an immune response to a drug.
thrombophlebitis Inflammation of a vein. Common causes include chemical irritation, blood hypercoagulability, immobilization, infection, postoperative venous stasis, prolonged sitting or standing, trauma to the vessel wall, or a long period of I.V. catheterization.
tonic-clonic seizure Paroxysmal, uncontrolled discharge of CNS neurons extending to the entire brain and characterized by stiffening (tonic phase) and then rapid synchronous muscle jerking and hyperventilation (clonic phase). Also called a major or grand mal seizure.
tonsillectomy The surgical removal of the palatine tonsils.
total parenteral nutrition (TPN) The administration of total caloric needs in a nutritionally adequate solution of glucose, protein hydrolysates, minerals, and vitamins through a catheter inserted into the superior vena cava.
tracheoesophageal fistula Abnormal opening between the esophagus and trachea that may lead to aspiration.
traction 1. The action of pulling a part of the body along the long axis. 2. In orthopedics: the act of exerting force through a system of weights and pulleys to align, immobilize, or relieve pressure in a limb, bone, or group of muscles.
transdermal Method or route of topical drug administration; provides continuous drug delivery through the skin to achieve a constant, steady blood concentration level.
transsphenoidal adenohypophysectomy Surgery involving the pituitary gland, most commonly performed to remove a pituitary tumor. The physician enters from the inner aspect of the upper lip through the sphenoid sinus.
transsphenoidal hypophysectomy Microsurgery in which an incision is made at the junction of the gums and upper lip. A surgical microscope is advanced and a special surgical instrument is used to excise all or part of the pituitary gland.
Trendelenburg's position Position in which the client's head is lower than the trunk; typically, the body and legs are elevated on an incline.
Trousseau's sign is positive when the client develops a carpopedal spasm (adducted thumb, flexed wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints, and extended interphalangeal joints) after a blood pressure cuff is applied to the client's upper arm and inflated to a pressure above s
tuberculosis An acute or chronic infection from exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis or another strain of mycobacteria characterized by pulmonary infiltrates and formation of granulomas with caseation, fibrosis, and cavitation.
type 1 diabetes An endocrine disorder involving disturbances in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, usually occurring before age 30 and requiring the use of exogenous insulin and dietary management. Also called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
type 2 diabetes An endocrine disorder involving disturbances in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism; characterized by insulin resistance with varying degrees of insulin secretory defects.
type 2 herpes simplex A type of herpes simplex virus transmitted primarily through contact with genital secretions and affecting the genital structures.
ulcerative colitis A chronic, recurrent ulceration of the colon of unknown cause in which there is abdominal cramping, rectal bleeding, and diarrhea containing blood, pus, and mucus.
urinary incontinence Inability to prevent urine discharge.
urinary tract infection (UTI) A bacterial infection, most commonly caused by Escherichia coli or a species of Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas, or Enterobacter, affecting one or more parts of the urinary tract.
urticaria A vascular reaction caused by dilation and increased permeability of the capillaries. Symptoms include the development of transient wheals with pale centers and well-defined erythematous margins.
variability Differing rhythmicity or changes in condition; often used to describe fetal heart rate reflected on the fetal heart rate tracing as a slight irregularity or jitteriness
vaso-occlusive crisis The most common type of sickle cell crisis resulting from blood vessel obstruction by rigid, tangled sickle cells leading to tissue anoxia and possibly necrosis. Also called a painful crisis or infarctive crisis.
vastus lateralis The largest of the four muscles that make up the quadriceps femoris; located on the outside of the thigh, extending from the hip joint to the common quadriceps tendon and inserted in the patella; extends the leg.
venography A radiographic test using a contrast medium to identify thrombi or obstruction in the veins of the lower extremities or the kidneys.
ventricular tachycardia A life-threatening arrhythmia that occurs when the ventricles produce several premature ventricular contractions in succession; usually due to a problem with the heart's conduction system and increased myocardial contractility.
wet-to-dry dressings Type of wound covering (dressing) in which gauze moistened with normal saline is applied wet to the wound and removed once the gauze becomes dry and adheres to the wound bed; used for debridement.
Wilms' tumor A rapidly growing malignant kidney tumor that occurs most commonly in children younger than age 5, although it sometimes develops before birth. Rare cases occur later in life. Also called adenomyosarcoma.
Z-track An I.M. injection technique in which the client's skin is pulled in such a way that the needle track is sealed off after the injection. The technique is done to minimize subcutaneous irritation and discoloration.
adenitis inflammation of a gland or lymph node
ileitis inflammation of the ileum
hydrarthrosis inflammation and swelling of a movable joint because of excess synovial fluid
glossitis – inflammation of the tongue
gastritis inflammation of the lining of the stomach; nausea and loss of appetite and discomfort after eating
funiculitis inflammation of a funiculus (especially an inflammation of the spermatic cord)
folliculitis – inflammation of a hair follicle
fibromyositis – local inflammation of muscle and connective tissue
fibrositis inflammation of white fibrous tissues (especially muscle sheaths)
episcleritis inflammation of the sclera of the eye
epididymitis painful inflammation of the epididymis
epicondylitis – painful inflammation of the muscles and soft tissues around an epicondyle
enteritis – inflammation of the intestine (especially the small intestine); usually characterized by diarrhea
endocervicitis – inflammation of the mucous lining of the uterine cervix
endarteritis – inflammation of the inner lining of an artery
encephalomyelitis – inflammation of the brain and spinal cord
cephalitis, encephalitis, phrenitis – inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus; symptoms include headache and neck pain and drowsiness and nausea and fever (`phrenitis' is no longer in scientific use
dacryocystitis – inflammation of the lacrimal sac causing obstruction of the tube draining tears into the nose
costochondritis – inflammation at the junction of a rib and its cartilage
corditis – inflammation of the spermatic cord
colpocystitis – inflammation of the vagina and bladder
colpitis – inflammation of the vagina
colitis, inflammatory bowel disease – inflammation of the colon
chorditis – inflammation of the spermatic cord
cholangitis – inflammation of the bile ducts
cheilitis – inflammation and cracking of the skin of the lips
cervicitis – inflammation of the uterine cervix
cellulitis – an inflammation of body tissue (especially that below the skin) characterized by fever and swelling and redness and pain
catarrh – inflammation of the nose and throat with increased production of mucus
bursitis – inflammation of a bursa; frequently in the shoulder
blepharitis – inflammation of the eyelids characterized by redness and swelling and dried crusts
balanoposthitis – inflammation of both the head of the penis and the foreskin
balanitis – inflammation of the head of the penis
angiitis – inflammation of a blood vessel or lymph duct
alveolitis, dry socket – inflammation in the socket of a tooth; sometimes occurs after a tooth is extracted and a blood clot fails to form
alveolitis – inflammation of the alveoli in the lungs caused by inhaling dust; with repeated exposure the condition may become chronic
adenitis – inflammation of a gland or lymph node
cytocele Fallen bladder in women. (Prolapse Bladder) The bladder may protrude and penetrate the vaginal wall, which is positioned just underneath the bladder.