PSYCH 3230 – 9 TEST #8

Question Answer How has psychodynamic therapy changed over time? It focuses on all relationships, not just early experiences Which is NOT a problem with benzodiazepines? Tardive dyskinesia The conventional antipsychotic drugs had a problematic side effect involving abnormal
movement Tardive dyskinesia A good example of psychotherapy being used as a guardian of the status quo Occurred when psychiatry was used as a means of political control in the former Soviet
Unions The main use of lithium is for Bipolar disorder Which is the most significant challenge to establishing that therapy is effective? Many people improve without formal treatment What does it mean to say a study is “double-blind”? Both the patient being given the drug and whoever will evaluate the drug’s effects do not
know whether the patient was given the treatment or the placebo 8. Prozac is a Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor A randomized clinical trial Is a study where people are assigned to different groups by a flip of a coin. Which is NOT an element of a therapeutic alliance? Client acceptance of the therapist’s theoretical orientation What is one of the best predictors of future violence? Past history of violence What might be a component of a biologically based universal strategy for preventing mental
illness? Encouraging regular physical activity Although the majority of currently disordered persons show no tendency toward violence, an
increased risk of violence is likely among those who Currently experience psychotic symptoms The Durham Rule Focused on the cause of an unlawful act Selective intervention programs that teach adolescents social skills and enhance feelings of
competency are Aimed at increasing self-esteem and reducing the influence of negative peer pressure The process by which lithium reduces the likelihood of mood swings Is unknown at this time While ________ can be used in treatment, it also is a means by which problematic behaviors
are acquired Modeling Why should defense lawyers be cautious about using the insanity defense? It rarely works A doctor prescribing lithium should NEVER say “We are going to ‘target dose’ your lithium: when you feel symptoms coming on, take your
medication” Why has the attempt to reduce the drug supply from other countries not reduced the rate of
adolescent substance abuse? The drugs most abused by adolescents are alcohol and tobacco, which are easily available Therapy outcome studies depend on ratings of the changes seen in clients.. The cannot see the client’s behavior in a range of settings 23. In contrast to most other forms of therapy, the client-centered therapist
a. Does Does not give answers or interpretations nor even steer the client onto certain topics For bipolar patients, the risk of relapse after discontinuing lithium is Roughly 50% within six months The use of lithium in the U.S. was delayed due to The fact that is could not be patented Atypical antipsychotics are more commonly used today b/c May effectively treat both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia Joan was surprised that, when she went to therapy, her therapist didn’t ask her questions but
just listened to her talk… Client-centered therapy Which changed with the Federal Insanity Defense Reform Act of 1984? It put the burden of proof on the defense Which of the activities does NIMH perform? Support professional training and provide public with info on mental health For which person is aftercare likely to be helpful b/c the person will fit the services typically
offered? Ned, who has had several schizophrenic episodes At Rush General, the inpatient mental ward employs a program that focuses on modifying
behavior of the patients by giving them gold stars for good behavior and ignoring undesirable
behavior. Social learning Which might be a component of a biologically based universal strategy for preventing mental
illness? Encouraging regular physical activity A son of a critical father comes to therapy one day and with no provocation is extremely
hostile in his remarks to the therapist. The therapist might consider that _______ is occurring Transference Dr. Lucas says to a client with anxiety disorders, “It is your unrealistic beliefs and
perfectionistic values that cause you to be so anxious, not the events of your life.”… Rational emotive behavior Which is a characteristic of therapeutic community? Individual responsibility Psychodynamic interpersonally oriented therapies agree with classical psychoanalysis in the
importance of Understanding the present in terms of the past All of the following are social forces that affect teen drug use Except Increased potency of street drugs Chrissy and her therapist wrote a list of ten scenes involving Chrissy’s fear of flying. Chrissy’s therapist told her to imagine herself in the
least frightening scene while she made herself feel relaxed. Chrissy was undergoing Systematic desensitization Dennis has disorganized type of schizophrenia. He
rarely shows any attempt at socializing. Every time Dennis speaks he is given a piece of red paper. At the end of each week, he can use the
papers for priveleges. This new program is A token economy Punishment is a component of Aversion therapy Which is believed to be essential for effective treatment? Agreement b/w the client and the therapists about the goals of the treatment Why are the SSRIs the most commonly used antidepressants today? Their side effects are more tolerable than those of first-generation antipsychotics Because much of Donald’s depression is a result of his lack of a healthy sexual relationship
with his wife, Dr. Jones figured that the best drug to treat him would be Welbutrin What is usually used as a placebo in a study of psychosocial treatments? A wait list The text reported the case of a three-year old autistic boy who was reinforced initially for
picking up eyeglass frames, then for holding them, then for carrying them around, and then for
putting the frames on his head. This is an example of Response shaping A major advantage of the atypical antipsychotic drugs is that They have a low risk of movement related side effects According to psychoanalysts, what is the therapist’s task when doing dream analysis? uncover the disguised meanings of the manifest content A psychotherapist says to her client, “Say whatever comes to your mind, no matter ho
strange or painful it may seem.” The psychotherapist is encouraging free association Which of the following is an advantage of using Beck’s cognitive treatment for depression,
as compared to drugs? the likelihood of relapse is decreased Which of the following is a criticism of humanistic-experiential therapies? goals are not clear The focus of process-experimental therapy is experiencing of emotions during therapy Which of the following statements about therapy is TRUE? Even people who are happy and successful can benefit from therapy The current practice of providing treatment stresses the coordination of services in the community The new antianxiety drug Buspar has the advantage that it has a low potential for abuse Why is it important to prevent teen alcohol use? Early alcohol use is associated with later alcohol abuse and dependence Which of the following is a characteristic of a therapeutic community? individual responsibility What was unusual about the Hinckley case? He was successful in pleading the insanity case According to the M’Naghten Rule, insanity is defined as not knowing right from wrong What kind of mistake do most mental health professionals make when assessing
dangerousness? They over predict violence The use of drugs that have noxious effects and viewing movies that elicit disgust are both
techniques associated with aversion therapy Drugs that block dopamine receptors are most likely to be used to treat psychotic disorders Efforts at reducing racism as a means of preventing mental illness would be a(n) ____
intervention. selective Community-based treatment programs are now referred to as after care programs Which of the following would be the most objective way of evaluation treatment success? measuring the change in through personality tests and other instruments Which of the following statements about therapy is TRUE? even people who are happy and successful can benefit from therapy What two professional groups deal extensively with emotional problems but typically do not
have specific training in counseling? physicians and the clergy Which of the following is NOT an element of a therapeutic alliance? client acceptance of the therapist’s theoretical orientation What do the medications used to treat mental illnesses do? treat the symptoms of the illness According to the views of Carl Rogers, how should children be raised? they should be permitted to blossom into the people they are destined to be Dr. Hart says, “For me, the goal of treatment is not to uncover inner conflicts, but to help the
client achieve adaptive… behavior How commonly are medications and therapy combined today? research suggests that over half of those in treatment receive both psychotherapy and
medication What recent changes have altered the types of therapy that are available? There is an increased need to prove that therapy is effective In the mid-1900s, prefrontal lobotomies were popular as a treatment because there weren’t many other available treatments The outcome of psychotherapy is usually dependent on whether the therapist and client
achieve a productive working alliance The time course of the effects of antidepressant medications suggests that changes in cellular functioning are necessary to alleviate the symptoms of depression Suzanne is taking a benzodiazepine to treat her anxiety. She should be concerned that she may become physically dependent on the drug Research on the impact of matching the client’s race and ethnicity with the therapist’s
indicates that there is no solid evidence that outcomes are diminished when client and therapist are not
matched All of the following are challenges of conducting randomized clinical trials of the
effectiveness of therapy EXCPET: there is a little variation between different types of therapy Why are the SSRIs the most commonly used antidepressants today? their side effects are more tolerable than those of the first generation antidepressants While ____ can be used in treatment, is also a means by which problematic behaviors are
acquired. modeling A typical defense strategy, to try to counteract public anger about the insanity defense, is to portray the defendant as someone who was themselves a victim All of the following are sociocultural efforts toward universal prevention of mental disorders
EXCEPT penal systems What kind of mistake do most mental health professionals make when assessing
dangerousness? they overpredict violence What was unusual about the Hinckley case? He was successful in pleading the insanity case The underlying basis of the insanity defense is a. some people who have a mental illness are not able to fully comprehend their behavior, ,so are
not able to form the needed intent for a crime, so shouldn’t be punished What impact have HMOs had on mental health care? Greater emphasis has been placed on finding treatment approaches that are time and cost
efficient At Rush General, the inpatient mental word employs a program that focuses on modifying
the behavior of the patients… social learning Why has the attempt to reduce the drug supply from other countries not reduced the rate of
adolescent substance abuse? the drugs most abused by adolescents are alcohol and tobacco, which are easily available Which of the following was a result of the Americans with Disabilities Act? Employers cannot discriminate against people with psychiatric problems Tarasoff-style laws are in a majority of states but vary quite a bit Which of the following is a criticism of humanistic-experiential therapies? goals are not clear The focus on process-experimental therapy is experiencing of emotions during therapy What does it mean to say that a study is “double-blind”? both the patient being given the drug and whoever will evaluate the drug’s effects do not know
whether the patient was given the treatment or the placebo. Which of the following is believed to be essential for effective treatment? agreement b/t the client and therapist about the goals of treatment Most of NIMH’s programs are actually planned and run by state and local organizations Predicting dangerousness is most comparable to preparing a weather forecast Oscar has been prescribed the following drugs over the years: Valium, Serax, Xanax, and
Ativan. We can guess that Oscar has had problems with anxiety and insomnia An attorney says, “My client has a mental disorder that made it impossible at the time of the
crime, to have intended … an insanity defense Which of the following is a form of behavior therapy that is commonly used in the treatment
of anxiety disorders? systematic desensitization Which of the following was an unforeseen consequence of deinstitutionalization? A rise in homelessness A major advantage of the atypical antipsychotic drugs is that c.
they have a low risk of movement-related side effects. Which of the following is TRUE regarding the use of mental health resources in private industry? c.
Many companies have recently begun providing psychological services through employee assistance
programs. Jack tells his therapist about a dream in which he struggles to drive a car that takes him in directions he
does not want to go. c.
manifest content of the dream is the story of trying to drive the car. All of the following are social forces that affect teen drug use EXCEPT increased potency of street drugs. Which of the following has the best chance of successfully pleading not guilty by reason of insanity? Susie, who has schizophrenia, has been in and out of hospitals all her life, who tried to break the arm of a
romantic rival. Which of the following is a criticism of humanistic-experiential therapies? Goals are not clear Research on the impact of matching the client's race and ethnicity with the therapist's indicates that there is no solid evidence that outcomes are diminished when client and therapist are not matched. Which of the following is an advantage of using Beck's cognitive treatment for depression, as compared
to drugs? a.
The likelihood of relapse is decreased. Efforts to counterbalance the social factors that entice adolescent binge drinking are examples of a.
selective interventions. A clinical psychologist who said that maladaptive behaviors are shared between members of a
relationship and not just the responsibility of an individual would be in harmony with therapists who
take the ________ approach. family therapy Why is a drug that is long-acting desirable? It will need to be taken less frequently. The verdict of Guilty but Mentally Ill d. means people with mental illness that are found guilty of a crime go to the hospital until they are better,
then return to jail to serve out their sentence. Sarah has just received her first treatment of electroconvulsive therapy. She is most likely to experience amnesia and confusion for an hour after the treatment. The advantage of using outside independent observers or pre-post test comparisons to evaluate a client's
progress is that they increase the objectivity of ratings over those given by the people involved in treatment. Which of the following is a form of behavior therapy that is commonly used in the treatment of anxiety
disorders? Systematic desensitization Psychological and physiological dependence is a well-documented danger of using a.
anxiolytics. Antidepressants are used to treat all of the following EXCEPT schizophrenia. For bipolar patients, the risk of relapse after discontinuing lithium is a.
roughly 50 percent within six months. Lithium was once used as a salt substitute. What do the medications used to treat mental illnesses do? Treat the symptoms of the illness with biochemical changes Community-based facilities that provide aftercare are typically run by a.
the residents themselves. In most states that have a Tarasoff-type rule, when a client threatens someone, a therapist must a.
make a reasonable effort to warn potential victims. When is peer influence most powerful for high-risk teens? c.
When there is a lack of adult supervision The broadest of the insanity rules is the c.
Durham Rule. Which of the following is a sociocultural effort toward universal prevention? public education One difference between voluntary hospitalization and involuntary commitment is that people who are in
the hospital voluntarily can, with sufficient notice, leave the hospital when they want to. Under what circumstances might the use of medications prior to psychotherapy be essential? c.
When the patient's symptoms are so severe that they make psychotherapy impossible Why should defense lawyers be cautious about using the insanity defense? a.
It rarely works. How has psychodynamic therapy changed over time? a.
It focuses on all relationships, not just early experiences. Which phrase best captures how well mental health professionals do in predicting the occurrence of
dangerous acts? Not as well as we would like Project Northland demonstrated that community-wide "no use" norms for teens can be taught. All of the following are sociocultural efforts toward universal prevention of mental disorders EXCEPT penal systems. The most recent research on deinstitutionalization has found a.
inpatient hospitalization has been increasing due to the failures to provide adequate care in the
community. The advantage of using outside independent observers or pre-post test comparisons to evaluate a client's
progress is that they increase the objectivity of ratings over those given by the people involved in treatment. In understanding and treating mental disorders, the World Health Organization at the present time has been very much aware of the interrelationship between physical, psychosocial, and sociocultural factors. In what way does therapy differ from simply talking to a friend or family member about a problem? c.
the belief that keeping channels of communication open will help solve problems. The Tarasoff rule usually applies c.
only if the target of violence is clearly identifiable. Lawrence, a hypochondriac, gains attention when he complains about
health problems; they tend to ignore him when he talks about other topics. A therapist has
instructed the family to reverse this: What
kind of treatment does this best illustrate? Contingency management For bipolar patients, the risk of relapse after discontinuing lithium is a.
roughly 50 percent within six months. Dr. Hart says, "For me, the goal of treatment is not to uncover inner conflicts, but to help the client
achieve adaptive responses that he or she can control and maintain through self-monitoring." Dr. Hart
probably considers herself a ________ therapist behavior What doctrine came out of the original Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California et al. case? The duty to warn Which of the following is NOT an advantage of behavior therapy? It works well if a problem is vague and ill-defined. While ________ can be used in treatment, it also a means by which problematic behaviors are acquired
when others' behavior is problematic. c.
modeling Prozac is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. A typical defense strategy, to try to counteract public anger about the insanity defense, is to a.
portray the defendant as someone who was him- or herself a victim. What is usually used as a placebo in a study of psychosocial treatments? a wait list The process by which lithium reduces the likelihood of mood swings is unknown at this time. Antidepressants are used to treat all of the following EXCEPT schizophrenia. The Brady family is attending family therapy sessions. The therapist has told them, "If the whole family
context changes, Marcia's problem behavior will change as well." The family therapist probably agrees
with the ________ therapy approach. a.
structural family Most of NIMH's programs are a.
actually planned and run by state and local organizations. While most antianxiety drugs act on ________, Buspar acts primarily on ________. c.
GABA; serotonin While there is little research on the different substance abuse prevention programs, what there is on
programs such as D.A.R.E. suggests they are mostly ineffective. Atypical antipsychotics are more commonly used today because they may effectively treat both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Research on the impact of matching the client's race and ethnicity with the therapist's indicates that there is no solid evidence that outcomes are diminished when client and therapist are not matched. Joan was surprised that, when she went to therapy, her therapist didn't ask her questions, but just
listened to her talk. She said she felt very comfortable with the therapist and felt she could say anything
at all and be accepted, Joan was probably in client-centered therapy. The newer anti-anxiety drug Buspar has the advantage that a.
it has a low potential for abuse. How has psychodynamic therapy changed over time? a.
It focuses on all relationships, not just early experiences. A good example of psychotherapy being used as a guardian of the status quo c.
occurred when psychiatry was used as a means of political control in the former Soviet Union. Drugs that block dopamine receptors are most likely to be used to treat psychotic disorders. A Nobel Prize winning treatment for schizophrenia was prefrontal lobotomies. At Rush General, the inpatient mental ward employs a program that focuses on modifying the behavior of the patients by giving them gold stars for good behavior and ignoring undesirable behavior. What type of treatment program does this appear to be? social learning What do the National Association for Mental Health, the National Association for Retarded Citizens, and the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) have in common? They all try to improve services and educate the government and public about various problems. What has research on the use of a combined approach to the treatment of depression demonstrated? Medication in combination with therapy yields the best results. Which of the following was an unforeseen consequence of deinstitutionalization? A rise in homelessness The conventional antipsychotic drugs have a problematic side effect involving abnormal movement. This side effect is called tardive dyskinesia. Punishment is a component of aversion therapy. Dr. Hart says, "For me, the goal of treatment is not to uncover inner conflicts, but to help the client achieve adaptive responses that he or she can control and maintain through self-monitoring." Dr. Hart probably considers herself a ________ therapist. behavior The time course of the effects of antidepressant medications suggests that changes in cellular functioning are necessary to alleviate the symptoms of depression. All of the following are challenges of conducting randomized clinical trials of the effectiveness of therapy EXCEPT There is little variation between different types of therapy. Which of the following best illustrates the analysis of resistance? Noting that the client is able to talk freely about his mother but not report anything about his father Which of the following would be the most objective way of evaluating treatment success? Measuring the change in through personality tests and other instruments The use of drugs that have noxious effects and viewing movies that elicit disgust are both techniques associated with aversion therapy. In Beck's cognitive therapy, an early "homework" assignment would be recording one's automatic thoughts and their associated emotional reactions. Psychodynamic interpersonally oriented therapies agree with classical psychoanalysis in the importance of understanding the present in terms of the past. Which of the following changed with the Federal Insanity Defense Reform Act of 1984? It put the burden of proof on the defense. In the mid-1900s, prefrontal lobotomies were popular as a treatment because there weren't many other available treatments. What treatment approach is most likely to be employed by an HMO to treat an anxiety disorder? Pharmacotherapy To summarize what is known about psychotherapy effectiveness we can say that the chances of an average client benefiting significantly are impressive. An analysis of brief psychodynamic psychotherapy found that there is great promise in it for borderline personality disorder. Yuko is painfully shy. Her therapist first shows her appropriate social skills so she can interact competently with others. Then Yuko attempts the same behavior while getting feedback. This illustrates the behavior therapy technique called modeling. The text reported the case of a 6-year-old boy who hated school and showed off in class. His parents and teacher were instructed to ignore the showing-off behavior while reinforcing appropriate behavior. This is an example of systematic use of reinforcement. All of the following are elements of "milieu therapy" EXCEPT teaching social skills and problem solving. Cognitive-behavioral therapy assumes that thinking influences emotion, motivation, and behavior. In order to prevent long-term consequences, ________ interventions are provided immediately after a disaster such as a plane crash. indicated Indicated prevention emphasizes the early detection and prompt treatment of maladaptive behavior in a person's community setting. 34. The Brady family is attending family therapy sessions. The therapist has told them, "If the whole family context changes, Marcia's problem behavior will change as well." The family therapist probably agrees with the ________ therapy approach. structural family 35. How commonly are medications and therapy combined today? Research suggests that over half of those in treatment receive both psychotherapy and medication. Oscar has been prescribed the following drugs over the years: Valium, Serax, Xanax, and Ativan. We can guess that Oscar has had problems with anxiety and insomnia. What doctrine came out of the original Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California et al. case? The duty to warn Once a person has been involuntarily committed to a mental institution, he or she may refuse treatment. Which of the following is a barrier to effective deinstitutionalization? The lack of sufficient mental health services in the community A typical defense strategy, to try to counteract public anger about the insanity defense, is to portray the defendant as someone who was him- or herself a victim. ***psychotherapy is best viewed as*** a set of tools which of the following would be the most likely candidate for ECT? a pregnant and depressed 25 year old why is it important to prevent teen alcohol use? early alcohol use is associated with later alcohol abuse and dependence a psychotherapist says to her client, "say whatever comes to your mind, no matter how strange or painful it may seem." The psychotherapist is encouraging: free association what led to the development of family systems therapy? the realization that the family environment played a role in whether relapse occurred which statement about negative outcomes in psychotherapy is accurate? when a sexual relationship occurs between therapist and patient, it is harmful to the patient under what circumstances can a therapist violate a client's confidence? when someone is in danger humanistic-existential therapies are based on the belief that psychopathology is a result of lack of fulfillment which of the following is a barrier to effective deinstitutionalization? the lack of sufficient mental health services in the community traditional behavioral couples therapy uses training in communication skills and problem solving to increase caring behaviors in couples. universal interventions are concerned with two key tasks: altering conditions that cause disorders and establishing conditions that foster positive mental health which of the following is the best example of a "model" therapy session? there is no "model" therapy homicidal behavior amongst former patients is greatest with a diagnosis of alcoholism research on the impact of matching the client's race and ethnicity with the therapists indicates that there is no solid evidence that outcomes are diminished when client and therapist are not matched dr. patel says this about his goals in therapy: "i want my patients to become aware of their repressed memories from childhood and come to terms with them in the light of adult realities." dr. patel most likely prefers ______ therapy. psychodynamic what has research on the use of a combined approach to the treatment of depression demonstrated? medication in combination with therapy yields the best results what do lithium carbonate, carbamazepine (tegretol), and valproate (depakote) have in common? they are all mood-stabilizing drugs. which of the following funds research on mental disorders and assists communities in establishing mental health services? the national institute on mental health (NIMH) a randomized clinical trial is a study where people are assigned to different groups by a flip of a coin, one-half to a treatment group and one-half to a seemingly identical placebo group in most states that have a tarasoff-type rule, when a client threatens someone, a therapist must make a reasonable effort to warn potential victims which of the following is an advantage of using beck's cognitive treatment for depression, as compared to drugs? the likelihood of relapse is decreased for which client is behavior therapy most likely to be effective? wilson, whose complaint is premature ejaculation freud called dreams "the royal road to the unconscious" because he believed defenses were lowered during sleep and repressed material would start to come out in dreams individuals vary tremendously in their degree of motivation for psychological treatment. which of the following is likely to be the most motivated? harvey, who is going through a job layoff and feels overwhelmed by the crisis selective intervention programs that teach adolescents social skills and enhance feelings of competency are aimed at increasing self-esteem and reducing the influence of negative peer pressure drugs that block dopamine receptors are most likely to be used to treat psychotic disorders in general, psychiatrists tend to treat mental disorders by ____ and psychologists by ____. prescribing medications, examining and changing behavior and thought patterns while most anti-anxiety drugs act on _____, buspar acts primarily on ______. GABA, serotonin dr. jones says, "these projects have clearly shown a promising path toward reducing the extent of substance abuse in young people." what projects is dr. jones talking about? ones that combine different intervention strategies the use of electroconvulsive therapy can be traced to the belief that schizophrenia and epilepsy are rarely comorbid disorders in the mid- 1900's prefrontal lobotomies were popular as a treatment because there werent many other available treatments julia has just been prescribed a monoamine oxidase inhibitor to treat her depression. what warning should her doctor give her? be careful what you eat which person described below is the "typical" client in psychotherapy? there is no "typical" client when is peer influence most powerful for high-risk teens? when there is a lack of adult supervision although the majority of currently disordered persons show no tendency toward violence, an increased risk of violence is likely among those who currently experience psychotic symptoms andrea begins therapy and expects that the therapy will help her. this expectancy may be enough by itself to produce positive change. a token economy is a type of contingency management efforts at reducing racism as a means of preventing mental illness would be a(n)_____ intervention. selective dr. mcdougal's specialty is forensic psychology. we can imagine that she is concerned with the legal status of the mentally ill. one criticism of traditional behavioral couple therapy has been the emphasis on change