Term Definition Example
Element Pure substance with one type of particle. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, aluminum.
Compound Pure substance with two or more elements joined together. H2O, sugar water, salt.
Mixture Two or more substances combined together. Salt water, orange juice, tap water, milk, chocolate chip cookie.
Homogeneous Mixture Mixtures that have only one set of properties. Paint, coffee, food coloring.
Heterogeneous Mixture Two or more Components that are visible. Chocolate chip cookie, milk.
Colloid Heterogeneous mixture in witch the particles don't separate. Milk, mayo
Solution A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
Suspension a heterogeneous mixture in witch the particle settles slowly.
Mechanical Mixture An obviously heterogeneous mixture.
Pure Substance A substance made up of one kind of matter that can combine chemically. Oxygen, gold, carbon dioxide, pure water.

scientific method steps in the scientific method

Term Definition
step 1 make an observation
step 2 ask q
step 3 make a hypothesis
step 4 conduct experiment
step 5 analize results
step 6 draw conclusion
step 7 report your results
independent variable what am i changing
dependent varible what changes because i change the independent
constent varilbe they are the one that does not change
unit for length meter
unit for mass grams
unit for time seconds
unit for thermodynamic temp celvin
unit for subtence mole
unit for capcity liter
kilo 100
hecto 100
deca 10
base 1
deci .1
centi .01
milli .001
what does the t stand for in tales title
what does the a stand for axis
what is the i in tails interval
L in tails lalbes
s in tales scale
when to use a line graph to show the flow of the values
when to use a bar graph to highlight indivual values
when to use a pie graph data percent as a whole
cranduated cylinder container to measure value in milli
thermoniter tool to measure temp in calsis
ruler a tool to measure lenght in centimeter
triplebeem balance tool that measure mass with three beems
stopwacth tool to measure time in seconds
pan balance tool to measure mass in grams
density mass divided volume
mass denstiy time value
volume l x w x h


Term Definition Example
element pure substances with one type of partical corbon,clorine,nitogen,oxygen,heliem
compuond pure substances with more than one particle h20
mixture two or more substances combined together salt water,orange juice,tap water,milk
homogeneous mixture mixtures that only look like they have one set of proportys paint,black coffee
heterogeneous mixture made of two or more part that are visable chokolat chip kookie,salsa
colloid heterogeneous mixtures that dont seperate milk,mayo
soulution a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances salt water,aple juice
suspension heterogeneous mixture in wich the particals settle slowly orange juice,coffee grinds
mechanical mixture an obvioudly hetergeneous mixture pizza, dirt
pure substances a substance made up of matter that can combine chemicly oxygen,gold,iron,distiled water


Term Definition Example
Element pure substance with one type of particle aluminum,sodium,helium,oxygen
compound pure substance with two or more particle h2o,salt
mixture two or more substances combined together salt water,orange juice,tap water,milk,chocolate chip cookie
homogeneous mixture mixtures that look like they have only one substance sugar water,black coffee,food coloring
heterogeneous mixture made up of two or more substances that you can see clearly salsa,jam,raisin bread
colloid heterogeneous mixtures that don't separate milk ,mayo
suspension A heterogeneous mixture in witch the particles settle slowly orange juice with pulp, Italian dressing
mechanical mixture an obviously heterogeneous mixture pizza,dirt
Pure substance A substance made up of one kind of matter that can combine chemically oxygen,gold,carbon dioxide,distilled water

AG – Unit 1B Vocab. AG – Unit 1B Foundations of Government Review

Term Definition
Rule of Law The idea that all people must follow the laws, and that laws are enforced fairly
Self-Government (Popular Sovereignty) The ability of people being able to make decisions on how their government should work and what type of government should be established
Due-Process The right people have to fair and reasonable laws; rules have to be followed when enforcing laws
Limited Government A government that has been limited in its power by a constitution, or written agreement
Rights A set of things that people believe they should be free to do without restrictions
Unicameral A legislative branch that has only one house or chamber
Bicameral A legislative branch that has two houses or chambers
Ratifiy To approve something by a formal vote
Magna Carta (1215) A document that was created to limit the power of the king of England and to protect the rights of the nobility
Mayflower Compact (1620) A document that was created to establish a government that would provide order and protect the colonists
English Bill of Rights (1689) A document that was created to expand the power of the English Parliament and expand the rights of the people, as well as further limit the power of the king
Enlightenment Movement (1700s) A movement that focused on establishing the social contract between people and their new governments
Sugar Act: An Act which allowed colonists who were caught smuggling cases of sugar from non-British owned colonies into North America to be tried in Britain and the sentence to be given by a judge, not a jury
Quartering Act An Act written, which forced American colonists to house and provide supplies to British troops who remained in America after the French and Indian War
Stamp Act An Act that forced American colonists to pay for an expensive stamp to be placed on all legal documents, newspapers, calendars, and almanacs to show that the tax had been paid. It was the first time the British had taxed the colonists to raise money
Declaratory Act This act stated that the colonies were dependent on the British and that all laws passed in the colonies were no longer in effect
Townshend Acts This Act placed a tax on things the British knew the colonists couldn’t make for themselves, such as paint, glass, paper, lead, and tea and allowed British gov't workers to search people’s houses and take (seize) items the homeowner hadn’t paid taxes for
Preamble An introduction explaining why the US Constitution was written
Declaration of Independence The formal statement written by Thomas Jefferson that was adopted in 1776 and declared the freedom of the 13 American colonies from Great Britain
Grievances A list of colonists' complaints about King George III and the laws that Parliament had passed without their representation
Resolution of Independence The colonists declare their independence from Britain
Articles of Confederation America's first Constitution adopted in 1777 and ratified (approved) in 1781, which provided for a weak central government and gave the states too much power
Confederate System of Government A system of government in which the states have more power than the central (national) government
Shay's Rebellion A revolt by farmers in western Massachusetts over taxes and foreclosures as they felt this new government wasn’t protecting their rights. Under Shay, these farmers were trying to overthrow and create a new government that better met their needs
Constitutional Convention of 1787 A gathering in Independence Hall in Philadelphia, PA, where 55 delegates from throughout all 12 states (Rhode Island did not send delegates) met for the purpose of strengthening the Articles of Confederation, but they ended up drafting a new Constitution
Virginia Plan A plan, unsuccessfully proposed at the Constitutional Convention, providing for a bicameral legislature; each house would have representation based on states' population, and executive and judicial branches would be chosen by the legislature
New Jersey Plan A plan, unsuccessfully proposed at the Constitutional Convention, providing for a single legislative house with equal representation for each state (this plan was favored by small states)
Connecticut (Great) Compromise Agreement between large and small states, which is to have a bicameral legislature with the House getting representation based on state population and Senate allowing each state to have 2 reps to vote for their state when making laws
Three-Fifths Compromise An agreement in which the North and South would count every 5 slaves as 3 free persons, which would count toward the state’s representation in Congress
Slave Trade Compromise A ban on the slave trade that could not be created by Congress until 1808
Electoral College Citizens vote for electors, who then vote for the president
Federalists Supported the new US Constitution as the plan to replace the Articles of Confederation; favored a stronger national government; and opposed the Bill of Rights, as federal power would already be limited
Anti-Federalists Opposed the new US Constitution as the plan to replace the Articles of Confederation; favored a weak national government that didn’t threaten state’s rights (confederate system); and wanted a Bill of Rights that would protect people's rights
US Bill of Rights First 10 Amendments of the US Constitution that define the rights of all US citizens
Second Continental Congress Meeting in Philadelphia, PA, where the Declaration of Independence was written
John Locke A 17th century English philosopher who held the political philosophy that a government’s power comes from the consent of the people (Social Contract Theory)
United Colonies Original name of the thirteen British colonies in North America that joined together and became the United States of America after adopting the Declaration of Independence in 1776
US Constitution A document outlining the basic laws and principles by which the US is governed. It was drafted by the Constitutional Convention and later included the Bill of Rights as well as other amendments

Carter Test 3 Carter World History Foundation Words Test 3

Question Answer
Polis a unique Greek version of a city-state
Acropolis the upper part of a Greek city-state-"High City" contained temples and important structures
Phalanx a massive formation of heavily armed foot soldiers
Helots a state-owned slave in Greek Society
Aristocracy form of government by the landholding elite/ also refers to the upper class
Oligarchy form of government where power is in the hands of a small group- usually the elite business class
Democracy government by the people
Homer writer, poet, Greek Iliad & Odyssey, poems about bravery of Greek Soldiers
Tyrant people who gain power through force
Zeus Greek, God, Ruler of Gods
Athena Greek, Goddess, goddess of wisdom / Athens named for her
Aphrodite Greek, Goddess, goddess of Love
Herodotus Athenian, Historian, Father of History, wrote about the Persian Wars
Alliance a formal agreement between two or more powers
Delian League an alliance of Greek city-states, led by Athens, as a defense against an outside force.
Ostracism Athenian right to vote or send someone out of society who was a threat to Democracy, banish from society
Pericles Athenian, statesman, politician, leader, ruler, introduced Direct Democracy, all men vote, class doesn't matter, Golden Age, had acropolis / Athens rebuilt
Thucydides Greek, Athenian, Historian, wrote about the Peloponnesian Wars, recorded speech given by Pericles
Rhetoric the art of skillful speaking-used to teach the public
Socrates Athenian, stonemason, teacher, reformer, Philosopher,
"Socratic Method" pose question & think about answers, convicted of corrupting young people of Athens & failing to respect gods, sentenced to death- Hemlock, distrusted Democracy, Teacher of Plato
Plato Athenian, teacher, student, author, builder, Philosopher, student of Socrates, distrusted Democracy-social classes with philosophers to rule, school known as the ACADEMY, author of Republic, most women are inferior , Teacher of Aristotle
Aristotle Athenian, student, teacher, founder, builder PHILOSOPHER, student of Plato, all governments have positives and negative, favored rule by a single, strong leader, built school known as Lyceum.; Founder of Zoology, Teacher of Alexander the Great
Pindar Greek, poet "ESPN" wrote victory odes that celebrated the Athlete
Alexander the Great Macedonian, son, soldier, general, emperor, conqueror of Macedonian Empire who spread Greek culture though out his Empire, Hellenistic culture
Euclid Hellenistic, mathematician, author wrote textbook Elements, basis for Geometry books today
Pythagoras Hellenistic, mathematician, relationship between the sides of a right triangle
Hippocrates Greek, physician / doctor studied illness and looked for cures – don't blame the gods "Hippocratic Oath"
Archimedes Hellenistic, scientist, inventor, mastered the use of levers and pulleys, "give me a lever ling enough, I will move the world"
Eratosthenes Hellenistic, scientist, showed the Earth was round by accurately calculating its circumference
Agora the Greek marketplace
Hoplite a heavily armed Greek soldier
Hera Greek, goddess, wife, Greek goddess of marriage & childbirth, wife of Zeus
Apollo Greek, god, Greek god of sun, fire, arts &music, and medicine
Thales Greek, philosopher, first Greek Philosopher, "The Why Guy"????

Carter Test 6 Carter Foundation words Test 6

Question Answer
Diocletian Roman and Byzantine emperor who dividied the Roman Empire into 2 sections in the late 200's A.D.
Byzantine Empire Eastern half of Roman Empire
Constantine Roman and Byzantine emperor who established Byzantium as the capital city
Constantinople capital city of B.E.
Justinian Greatest Byzantine emperor best remembered for his reform of Roman Law – Justinian's code
Theodora wife of Justinian served as co-ruler
Justinian Code Collection of Laws from the old Roman Repuplic/ Empire
Corpus Juris Civilis Guide used by law makers today
Autocrat Sole ruler with complete authority
Patriarch Highest church official in Constantinople
Icons Holy images
Shism A permanent split between Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Church (1054)
Eastern Orthodox Church Official church of the Byzantine Empire
Ottoman Empire Empire which conquers the Byzantine Empire in 1453 (Muslim)
Istanbul Capital city of Ottoman Empire , Formerly known Constantinople
Rus Combination of Scandinavian vikings and Slavic peoples who fomr what will become known as the state of Russia
Cyril, Methodius Greek Monks who adapted the Greek alphabet so they could translate the Bible into Slavic languages – Cyrillic Alphabet
Genghiz Khan Leader of the Mongols who eventually conquers Russian state very tolerant ruler known as the "World Emperor" brought peace to the land between China and Eastern Europe
Czar The Russian word of Caesar, name used by late Russian Rulers
Mosiacs Pictures of designs formed inlaid pieces of stone/art form
Pentarchy The five church leaders of the Orthodox / Catholic church with included the Pope of Rome and The Patriarchs
Iconoclast Movement A reaction against the use of icon in the Orthodox church with took place in the 700's A.D.

Carter Test 5 Carter / World History Foundation Words Test 5

Question Answer
Indo-Aryans branch of Indo-Europeans who migrated into India from the plateau of Iran
Vedas religious text of the Indo-Aryans that tell about the history and culture of the Aryans
Dravidians descendants of the original inhabitants of the Indus River Valley
Kshatriyas Indo-Aryan warriors
Brahmins Indo-Aryan priests
Vaisyas Indo-Aryan herders, farmers, artisans, and merchants
Sundras one of the non-Indo-Aryan Varnas which consisted of farm workers, servants, and laborers/ one of the lowest classes in Indo-Aryan society
Caste System a system of social rank in Indo-Aryan society, based on birth
Yin and Yang Chinese belief that two complimentary forces dictate everything in the Universe
Calligraphy Chinese art of fine handwriting
Mandate of Heaven the divine right to rule in which the Chinese believe the gods choose the leading dynasty
Silk Road the trade route that eventually connected China to the Middle East and Europe
Hinduism One of the two major religions that emerged in Ancient India
Buddhism One of the two major religions that emerged in Ancient India
Moksha union with Brahma / the goal of all Hindus
Reincarnation rebirth of the soul
Dharma the religious or moral duties that all hindus must follow
Karma action of a person's life that affect his/her fate in the next life
Siddhartha Gautama founder of Buddhism
Four Noble Truths principals that are at the heart of Buddhism which includes the Eight Fold Path
Nirvana to become one with the universe, also known as "perfect peace" / the goal of all Buddhists
Chandragupta Maurya created the first great Indian Empire
Asoka the most honored Mauryan emperor, grandson to Chandragupta, converted to Buddhism, stressed nonviolent means to achieve a goal
Confucious also known as Master Kong or Kong Fuzi, considered to be the greatest Chinese philosopher, ideas included respect for your elders and practicing a code of politeness
Laozi known as the
'Old Master" / founder of the Chinese philosophy known as Taoism / Daoism
Shinto "the way of the gods" / the worship of forces of nature in early Japanese society
Archipelago chain of islands
Varnas social classes of Indo-Aryan society
Sanskirt language / writing of the Indo-Aryans
Leizu woman who discovered the idea that the thread produced by the silkworm could be spun into cloth