Chapter 1 history

Question Answer
Old Stone Age The Paleolithic Period
New Stone Age Neolithic Period
Began around 10,000BC
Nomad People who move from place to place to follow animals and search for edible plants
Bureaucracy A system of managing government through specialized departments run buy appointed officials
Pictograph Simple drawings that represented ideas
Empire A group of states, territories, and peoples ruled by 1 person
Fertile Crescent An arc of soil-rich land
Mesopotamia A part of the Fertile Crescent
Hebrews Many of the people who occupied the Fertile Crescent, the Torah is their most sacred text
Pharaoh Egyptian ruler
Cultural diffusion The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
City-State A political unit made up of a city and the surrounding lands
Ziggurats Soaring pyramid temples
Hierarchy System of ranks
Cuneiform Earliest form of writing
Scribes Specially trained people who knew Howe to read and write
Monotheistic A religion in which only 1 god is believed in
Prophet Spiritual leaders
Ethics Moral standards of behavior
Diaspora The scattering of people
Mohenjo-Daro One city in one of the first civilizations in India
Aryans People from Central Asia who migrated to northwestern India: spoke an Indo-European language related to English and other European languages.
Vedas A collection of prayers, hymns, and other religious teachings
Zhou Dynasty Promoted the idea of the Mandate of Heaven, or the divine right to rule
Caste Social groups in which people are born and which they cannot leave
Polytheistic Believe in many gods
Brahman The notion that the single spiritual power that resides in all things
Mystics Individuals who devote thief lives to seeking spiritual truth
Dynasty A ruling family
Dynastic cycle The rise and fall of dynasties
What is the order from highest to lowest in a caste? Priests, Warriors, herders, farmers, artisans, merchants, farm workers, servants and other laborers, Dalits.
what were the beliefs of the Chinese during the Shang dynasty? They prayed to many gods and nature spirits, believed that the universe reflected a balance between two forces, yin and yang (Yin-earth and females:yang-heaven and male voices)
Mercator Projection exaggerated sizes at the poles, and the longitude and latitude lines are straight
Robinson Projection the size is distorted: rounded edges and accurate poles
Global Gores size, shape, and distance are slightly distorted, does a not show the poles, cut football shaped chunks and arranged side by side
Sinusoidal Equal Area Projection looks stretched out, poles are accurate
Peters Projection continents are stretched, tropics are emphasized/expanded
Eckert (Equal Area) Projection rounded edges, better representations of poles; no North Pole
What is the difference between a physical map and a political map Political: Man Made
Physical:God made
Physical Map shoes physical/natural features of an area; mountains, rivers
relief maps show changes in elevation through shading or changing colors
political map shoe boundaries and other features created by humans; National and state borders
prime meridian 0 degrees
name of tropics and locations cancer:23.5 degrees north
Capricorn:23.5 degrees south
Tropics the region where the worst natural disasters form
Geography the study of where people, places, and things are located and how they relate to each other
5 themes of geography location
Human-Environment Interaction
relative location the location of a place in relation to another place
perceptual regions areas defined by people's feelings and attitudes
formal regions areas in which certain characteristics are found throughout
human environment interation the way people use, change, and react to the environment in which they live as well as the consequences of human actions
movement how a place is affected and unfluenced by movements in population, goods, and ideas
Pre-history period before written records
When did recorded history begin? About 5000 years ago
Primary source An object or document which was written or created during the time under study (1 person acct)
Secondary Source A document that interprets primary sources and is at least 1 step removed
Who is history told by? The winners
What do historians do? Attempt to give a factual representation of the past
Anthropologist Study the origins and development of humans and society
Archaeology A form of Antropology that focuses on material remains
Who were Mary and Louis Leakey? They studied the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania and discovered primative stone tools and the remains of 50 early hominids
Olduvai Gorge In Tanzania; 30 miles long, 295 ft deep: Mary and Louis Leakey found the remains of 50 early hominids there as well as some of the best example of primatived stone tools
Who discovered and who is "Lucy" Donald Johnson discovered her, she was a partial skeleton of an early hominid dating back 3 million years: (homo habilis) upright walker 4 ft tall
Homo Habilis Emerged 2 million years ago first to make and use stone tools; handy man
Homo Erectus Larger brains, used fire, may have been the first to migrate
Home Sapiens Us; 250,000 to 100,000 years ago Homo Sapiens replaced Homo erectus
What is the difference between early humans and neanderthals? Neanderthals were nomadic
Egyptian classes Pharaoh,nobles, merchants and artisans, farmers/slaves
Jericho One of the first civilizations; 9000BC
Still exists today in Israel
Best known for its walls, also in a biblical acct
Surrounded by natural boundaries
Naturally irritated by the River Jordan, an oasis in the center of Palestine
Neolithic Revolution As hunter-gathers, every person was busy trying to secure enough food, then 12000 years ago, early humans learned to farm (monumental shift in mans way of life)
Why now? (Why did humans now learn to farm) Agriculture was considered a divine gift, tied into religious rituals
Climate change
Domesticated plants and animals

See notes before test

Catalhuyuk In modern day turkey
Largest and most sophisticated Neolithic site yet discovered
Roughly translated to "Fork Mound"
Worship emphasized females
Strategic location Villages were built around rivers
Fertile land=_______ abundant crops=fewer farmers=stored food=larger populations
Civilization A complex, highly organized social order
7 major features of civilization Organized Government
Complex Religion
Job Specialization
Social Classes
Art and Architecture
Public Works
Organized Government Oversee large scale projects for the common good;create laws and oversee defense
Complex religion 1st were polytheistic, believed in gods that controlled nature, war, fertility; used ceremonies and sacrifices to gain favor
Job specialization Butcher, baker, candle maker; more people free to develop skills, when you depend on others to fulfill your needs in a civilization
Social classes Based on occupation or wealth
Nobles and priests at the top, merchants/artisans, peasants, slaves
Art and Architecrture Reflect the values and culture of society; palaces/temples
Public Works Large-scale projects to benefit citizens; irrigation, roads, bridges, walls
Writing Not established everywhere; began with pictographs, then developed symbols; more complex=fewer people understood=need for scribes
Technology Skills and tools people use to meet their basic needs
What is the major difference between civilizations and villages Government